CPP-ACP is the acronym for a complex of casein phosphopeptides and amorphous calcium phosphate.
Casein phosphopeptides (CPP) are a group of peptides derived from casein, part of the protein that occurs naturally in milk.
The CPP are thought to be responsible for the high bioavailability of calcium from milk and other dairy products.
The CPP containing the amino acid cluster sequence -Ser(P)-Ser(P)-Ser(P)-Glu-Glu have the ability to bind and stabilize calcium and phosphate in solution, as well as bind to dental plaque and tooth enamel.
Calcium phosphate is normally insoluble, ie. forms a crystalline structure at neutral pH. However, the CPP keep the calcium and phosphate in an amorphous, non-crystalline state.
In this amorphous state calcium and phosphate ions can enter the tooth enamel. The high concentration of calcium and phosphate ions in dental plaque following exposure to CPP-ACP have been extensively researched and proven to reduce the risk of enamel demineralization and promote remineralization of tooth enamel.
CPP-ACP is derived from casein, a protein found in milk, and is generally recognized as safe ("GRAS").
In early 1999, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) accepted the CPP-ACP GRAS notification.
CPP-ACP contains no lactose, the carbohydrate in milk that can cause gastrointestinal upset sometimes seen with dairy-based products.
Therefore, despite its dairy origin, gastrointestinal symptoms are not seen with CPP-ACP. However, RECALDENTTM(CPP-ACP) is manufactured from the cow's milk protein casein. People with an allergy to milk protein should avoid products containing RECALDENTTM(CPP-ACP).
RECALDENTTM(CPP-ACP) can be found in sugarless chewing gum and confectionery products in the consumer oral health care market.
More recently a sugar free, water-based creme containing RECALDENTTM(CPP-ACP) (GC Tooth Mousse/Prospec MI Paste) has been made available to dental professionals. Other applications for RECALDENTTM(CPP-ACP) , such as other oral care products (for both professional and consumer application) and nutritional products, are currently being developed and are planned to be launched in the future.
RECALDENTTMis the trademark applied to the CPP-ACP technology. When used as an ingredient in oral care products, RECALDENTTM(CPP-ACP) reduces the risk of demineralization and promotes remineralization of enamel subsurface lesions.
The high concentration of calcium and phosphate ions at the tooth's surface can diffuse into uncavitated sub-surface lesions in the tooth enamel and re-crystallize, thereby adding minerals into the enamel and repairing the lesion.
The CPP-ACP technology has been extensively researched by staff at the University of Melbourne Dental School since the 1980s. The Supporting Information page lists of some of the scientific publications validating this technology
For the results of in situ clinical trials examining the remineralization of enamel subsurface lesions by chewing gum containing casein phosphopeptides stabilized with amorphous calcium phosphate, and the resistance of the remineralized enamel to acid challenge, please click on the links below.
1. Shen P, Cai F, Nowicki A, Vincent J, Reynolds EC. J Dent Res. 2001; 80(12): 2066-2070. - http://jdr.iadrjournals.org/cgi/reprint/80/12/2066.pdf
2. Reynolds EC, Cai F, Shen P, Walker GD. J Dent Res. 2003; 82(3): 206-211. - http://jdr.iadrjournals.org/cgi/reprint/82/3/206.pdf
3. Iijima Y, Cai F, Shen P, Walker G, Reynolds C, Reynolds EC. Caries Res 2004; 38: 551-556.
4. Morgan MV, Adams GG, Bailey DL, Tsao CE, Fischman SL, Reynolds EC. Caries Research. 2008; 42(3):171-84.
In early 1999 RECALDENTTM(CPP-ACP) was reviewed by the FDA under the agency's GRAS Affirmation Program for use in confectionery.
Calcium, phosphate and fluoride should ideally be in an ionic form in order to remineralize tooth enamel. The CPP have been shown to keep the calcium, phosphate and fluoride as ions in solution, thereby enhancing the efficacy of the fluoride as a remineralizing agent.
Yes RECALDENTTM(CPP-ACP) is digestible by people with lactose intolerance. Products containing RECALDENTTM(CPP-ACP) should not be consumed by people with milk protein allergies.